from “Letter from Birmingham Jail” – Martin Luther King, Jr.
(Page 1137 – 1145)
Directions: Answer thoroughly in legible, complete sentences.
Reference to a person, place, event, or literary work that the author expects the reader to be familiar with; historical, biblical, mythological, etc.
Inductive – specific information to a general conclusion (regular triangle)
Deductive – Broader statement to more specific (inverted triangle)
QUESTIONS FROM TEXT
8 white clergymen who wrote a letter in response to his protesting; “unwise and untimely”
b/c he gets so much criticism for all that he does that his secretaries would have little to no time to accomplish anything else
President of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
“Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere”
Anyone who lives inside the United States can never be considered an outsider anywhere within its bounds
It is more unfortunate “that the city’s white power structure left the Negro community with no alternative”
1) Collection of facts to determine whether injustices exist; 2) negotiation; 3) self-purification; 4) direct action
gross mistreatment in the courts; unsolved bombings of churches and homes; etc.
“our hopes had been blasted” / “shadow of deep disappointment” etc. (pg 1138)
They devised a plan to schedule a boycott
During the Easter season b/c other than Christmas, it is the main shopping period of the year
Birmingham’s mayoral election was coming up in March and they decided to postpone the boycott until after election day; they did not want to cloud the issues that were being brought up during the election period
“Crisis and fosters such a tension that a community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issue” (pg 1139)
Constructive, non-violent tension that is necessary for growth; wants to create that tension to “help men rise from the dark depths of prejudice and racism to the majestic heights of understanding and brotherhood”
To negotiate with local lawmakers; to bring about civil rights for African-Americas
The new Birmingham administration must be negotiated with just as much as the old administration
the centuries that African Americans were enslaved in the United States
Deductive reasoning – it begins with a general statement and then advances with more specific statements of facts and evidence that leads to a conclusion
“morally wrong and sinful”
A German-born American theologian of the 20th century; “sin is separation”
Humankind’s banishment from the Garden of Eden, described in the Christian Bible. Adam and Eve, because of their sinful pursuit for knowledge were forced to leave Eden and suffer separation from God.
King is saying that segregation is sinful, that people’s estrangement from their brothers and sister is a tragic result of sin
Because a violent response just “adds fuel to the fire”
Adolf Hitler – Hitler’s regime during the Holocaust killed over 11 millions people considered undesirable
Inductive – “Shallow understanding from people of goodwill is more frustrating than absolute misunderstanding from people of ill will”; “Lukewarm acceptance is much more bewildering than outright rejection”
Racial prejudice and all of its ugly consequences (pg 1143)
As an extremist; he gained satisfaction at the label once he realized that he was being categorized with others such as Amos, Paul, Jesus, John Bunyan etc (see examples in footnotes) (top pg 1144)
The young African American population, many of them students, who took part in the non-violent demonstrations and sit-ins
He is emphasizing that civil rights are the birthright of every American citizen and that black Americans are unfairly denied these rights
AWV – If his response is too strong, then he may offend the clergymen; if his response is not strong enough, then he must answer to God for lacking moral insight and courage. He is implying that he would rather err on the side of exaggeration.