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50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC (Thomas J. Bergin, editor). ARL-SR-93, Army Research Laboratory and the U.S. Army Ordnance Center & School, 2000. 168 p.

Abbate J. Inventing the Internet. Cambridge, London: The MIT Press, 1999. 268 p.

Abramson, Albert. Zworykin, Pioneer of Television. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1995. 319 p.

Vladimir K. Zworykin (1889-1982), the Russian/American electronics pioneer, who contributed to the early development of electron microscopes, photoelectric cells, facsimile machines, etc., as well as of television cameras and receivers.

Action This Day: Bletchley Park from the breaking of the Enigma Code to the birth of the modern computer. Michael Smith and Ralph Erskine (eds.). London, N.-Y.: Bantam, 2001. 543+xv p.

22 essays covering the BP story from the aftermath of World War I to the era of Cold War cooperation that BP's success made possible.... The editors provide short introductions to each essay, putting them in context.

A great amount of new information on how things were achieved at Bletchley Park (B.P.). "Of special interest are the papers of the B.P. veterans, who reveal not only where they worked, but what they really did and how they achieved their successes.

Best book ever written about code breaking at Bletchley Park (BP).... [C]hapters by some of Britain's outstanding historians, former code breakers and academics (plus two Americans) ... trace the legacy of BP from the innovative work that led to the breaking of Enigma and other wartime codes, to the invention of modern computing and its influence on Cold War code breaking

Agar J. The Government Machine: A Revolutionary History of the Computer. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2003. 576 p.

Akera A. Voluntarism and the Fruits of Collaboration: The IBM User Group, Share // Technology & Culture, vol. 42, 2001. P. 710-736.


Alan Turing
s Automatic Computing Engine. B. J. Copeland (Ed.). Oxford: University Press, 2004. 584 p.

Al-Kadi I. A. Origins of Cryptology: The Arab Contribution / Selections from Cryptologia: history, people, and technology. Deavours Cipher A., ed. Norwood, MA: Artech House, Inc, 1998. P. 93-122.

Allyn, Stanley C. My half century with NCR. McGraw-Hill, 1968. 209 p.

Aloisio M. The Calculation of Easter Day, and the Origin and Use of the Word Computer // AHC, vol. 26, № 3, July-September 2004. P. 42-49.

Anderson H. L. Metropolis, Monte Carlo and the MANIAC // Los Alamos Science, № 14, 1986. P. 96-108.

Andoyer H. Fundamental trigonometrical and logarithmic tables / Napier Tercentenary Memorial Volume. L.: Longmans, Green and Company, 1915. P. 243-260.

André, Jacques and Mounier-Kuhn, Pierre (eds.) Actes du 7e colloque sur lHistoire de lInformatique et des Transmissions, Espacé Ferrie – École Supérieure et dApplication des Transmissions. Natl Inst. for Research on Informatics and Automation, 2004. 269 p.

[Proc. 7th Symp. on the History of Data Processing and Communications]

Andrews E. G. Telephone Switching and the Early Bell Laboratories Computers // AHC, Vol. 4, № 1, January 1982. P. 13-19.

Andrews E. G., Bode H. W. Use of the Relay Digital Calculator // AHC, Vol. 4, № 1, January 1982. P. 5-13.

Anonymous. History of Computer Developments in Romania // AHC, Vol. 21, №. 3, July-September 1999. P. 58-60.


Anthes E. Some Examples of Problems Philip Matthaus Hahn (1739-1790) Solved With His Calculating Machines // Proceedings of the Cultural History of Mathematics, vol. 5. Inner Mongolia Press, 1995. P. 83-91.

Archibald R. C. First Published Compound-Interest Tables // Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, 1, 1943/1945. P. 401-402.


Archibald R. C. Martin Wiberg, his tables and his difference engine // Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, 2, № 20, 1947. P. 371-373.

Archibald R. C. P. G. Scheutz, Publicist, Author, Scientific Mechanician, and Edvard Scheutz, Engineer Biography and Bibliography // Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, 2, № 18, 1947. P. 238-245.

Archibald R. C. Bartholomäus Pitiscus (1561-1613) // Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, 3, 1949. P. 390-397.

Archibald R. C. Rheticus, with special reference to his Opus Palatinum // Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, 3, 1949. P. 552-561.

Archibald R. C. Mathematical Table Makers // The Scripta Mathematica Studies, № 3, 1948. 82 p.

Arden B. GAT: An Early Compiler and Operating System // AHC, Vol. 8, № 1, January-March 1986. P. 56-58.

Ascher M. The Logical-Numerical System of Inca Quipus // AHC, vol. 5, № 3, July-September 1983. P. 268-278.

Ascher M., Ascher R. Mathematics of the Incas: Code of the Quipu. Dover Publications, 1997. 176 p.

Unique, thought-provoking study discusses quipu, an accounting system employing knotted, colored cords, used by Incas to transmit information. Cultural context, mathematics involved, quipu-maker in Inca society - even how to make a quipu. Fascinating for anthropologists, ethnologists, students, general readers. Over 125 photos and illustrations.

Ashurst G. Pioneers of computing. London: Muller, 1983. 210 p.

Aspray W. F. The Scientific Conceptualization of Information: A Survey // AHC, Vol. 7, № 2, April-June 1985. P. 117-140.

Aspray W. International Diffusion of Computer Technology, 1945-1955 // AHC, Vol. 8, № 4, October-December 1986. P. 351-360.

Aspray W. An Annotated Bibliography of Secondary Sources on the History of Software // AHC, Vol. 9, № 3/4, July-December 1987. P. 291-343.


Aspray W. Discussion: John von Neumann  A Case Study of Scientific Creativity // AHC, Vol. 11, № 3, Fall 1989. P. 165-169.

Aspray W. John von Neumanns Contributions to Computing and Computer Science // AHC, Vol. 11, № 3, Fall 1989. P. 189-195.

Aspray W. John von Neumann and the Origins of Modern Computer. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1990. 394 p.

Aspray W. Edwin L. Harder and the Anacom: analog computing at Westinghouse // AHC, vol. 15, № 2, 1993. P. 35-52.

Aspray, W. The History of Computing within the History of Information Technology // History and Technology, vol. 1, № 1, 1994. P. 7-20.

Aspray W. The Intel 4004 Microprocessor: What Constituted Invention? // AHC, Vol. 19, № 3, July-September 1997. P. 4-15.

Aspray W., Beaver D. deB. Marketing the Monster: Advertising Computer Technology // AHC, Vol. 8, № 2, April-June 1986. P. 127-143.

Aspray W., Gunderloy M. Early Computing and Numerical Analysis at the National Bureau of Standards // AHC, Vol. 11, № 1, Spring 1989. P. 3-12.

Aspray W., Williams B. O. Arming American Scientists: NSF and the Provision of Scientific Computing Facilities for Universities, 1950-1973 // AHC, Vol. 16, № 4, Winter 1994. P. 60-74.

This article discusses the role of the US National Science Foundation in the provision of scientific computing facilities for colleges and universities in the period 1950 to 1973. In this period, the NSF played a major role in establishing computing facilities on American campuses for the purposes of scientific research and science education. By the end of this period, most of these programs at NSF had been disbanded, and the foundation was concentrating its support for computing not on the service of other scientific disciplines, but instead on the establishment of a theoretically oriented discipline of computer science. The primary focus here is on NSF institutional history, with only a few examples of the impact of NSF programs. But it is an important part of a larger story of the role of the federal government in establishing American hegemony in computing in this era.


Astrahan M. M., Jacobs J. F. History of the Design of the SAGE Computer  The AN/FSQ-7 // AHC, Vol. 5, № 4, October-December 1983. P. 340-349.

Atanasoff J. V. Advents of Electronic Digital Computing // AHC, vol. 6, № 3, 1984. P. 229-282.

Auerbach I. L. The Start of IFIP  Personal Recollections // AHC, Vol. 8, № 2, April-June 1986. P. 180-192.

Augarten, Stan. Bit by Bit: An Illustrated History of Computers. N.-Y.: Houghton Mifflin, 1984. 324 p.

Austrian G. D. Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing. N.-Y.: Columbia University Press, 1982. 418 p.

Automatic Computing Engine, The: Papers by Alan Turing and Michael Woodger. Introduction by B. E. Carpenter and R. W. Doran. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1986. 125 p.

Babcock, Bruce E. George Washington Richardsons Direct Reading Slide Rules // Journal of the Oughtred Society, vol. 1, № 1, February 1992. P. 9-13.

Babcock, Bruce E. A Guided Tour of an 18th Century Carpenters Rule // Journal of the Oughtred Society, vol. 3, № 1, March 1994. P. 26-34.

A Coggeshall type folding rule, one arm of which is a slide rule.

Babcock, Bruce E. Some Notes on the History and Use of Gunters Scale // Journal of the Oughtred Society, vol. 3, № 2, September 1994. P. 14-20.

Babcock, Bruce E. Two Noble Attempts to Improve the Slide Rule // Journal of the Oughtred Society, vol. 4, № 1, March 1995. P. 41-45.

Baber R. L. Comparison of Electrical “Engineering” of Heavisides Times and Software “Engineering” of Our Times // // AHC, Vol. 19, № 4, October-December 1997. P. 5-17.

Backus J. The History of Fortran I, II, and III // AHC, Vol. 20, № 4, 1998. P. 68-78.

Barkley R. J. Highlights of the History of the Lambda-Calculus // AHC, Vol. 6, № 4, October-December 1984. P. 337-349.


Barkley Fritz W. ENIAC  A Problem Solver // AHC, Vol. 16, № 1, Spring 1994. P. 25-45.

Barkley Fritz W. The Women of ENIAC // AHC, Vol. 18, № 3, Fall 1996. P. 13-28.

Barnes S. B. Douglas Carl Engelbart: Developing the Underlying Concepts for Contemporary Computing // AHC, Vol. 19, № 3, July-September 1997. P. 16-26.

Barry P. D. George Boole: A Miscellany. Cork, Ireland: Cork University Press, 1969. 78 p.

Bashe C. J. The SSEC in Historical Perspective // AHC, Vol. 4, № 4, October-December 1982. P. 296-312.

Bashe Ch., Johnson L., Palmer J., Pugh E. IBMs early computers. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1985. 738 p.

Bauer F. L. Ries und Schickard // Informatik Spektrum 15, 1995. P. 225-228.

Bauer F. L., Wossner H. The “Plankalkül” of Konrad Zuse: A Forerunner of Todays Programming Languages // Communications of the ACM, vol. 15, № 7, July 1972. P. 678-685.

Baxandall D. (ed.) Calculating Machines and Instruments: Catalogue of the Collection in the Science Museum, South Kensington, Mathematics I. London: Chapman, 1926.

Beard M., Pearcey T. The Genesis of an Early Stored-Program Computer: CSIRAC // AHC, Vol. 6, № 2, April-June 1984. P. 106-115.

Beauchamp K. A History of Telegraphy. London: P. Peregrinus / Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2001. 440 p.

This book records the growth of telegraphy over two centuries, depicting the discoveries and ingenuity of the experimenters and engineers involved, the equipment they designed and built, and the organization, applications and effects on society. The two main phases - cable-based techniques that began in the early 19th Century and then wireless transmission in the 20th - parallel the changes in voice and information communications seen recently. Modern methods of data compaction, coding and encryption in today's communications all have their routes in the techniques of the telegraph pioneers.


Beauclair W. de. Alwin Walther, IPM, and the Development of Calculator/Computer Technology in Germany, 1930-1945 // AHC, Vol. 8, № 4, October-December 1986. P. 334-350.

Beckman B. An Early Cipher Device: Fredrik Gripenstiernas Machine // Cryptologia, vol. XXVI, № 2, April 2002. P. 113-123.

Beckmann P. A History of Pi. N.-Y.: St. Martins Griffin, 1976. 208 p.

Beeching, Wilfred A. Century of the Typewriter, new edition. Bournemouth: British Typewriter Museum Publishing, 1990. 276 p.

Belden T. G. The Lengthening Shadow: The Life of Thomas J. Watson. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1962. 332 p.

The official biography of Watson, which is less sanitized than one might expect, and which includes useful data on the development of IBM.

Benington H. D. Production of Large Computer Programs // AHC, Vol. 5, № 4, October-December 1983. P. 350-361.

Berkovich, Simon. Reminiscences of superconductive associative memory research in the former Soviet Union // AHC, Vol. 25, № 1, January-March 2003. P. 72-75.

Воспоминания бывшего сотрудника ИТМ и ВТ АН СССР, относящиеся к 1960-м годам.

Berlin, Leslie. The Man Behind the Microchip: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley. Oxford University Press, 2005. 402 p.

Berry J. R. Clifford Edward Berry, 1918-1963: His Role in Early Computers // AHC, Vol. 8, № 4, October-December 1986. P. 361-369.

Bertrand G. Enigma, ou la Plus Grande Enigme de la Guerre 1939-45. Paris: Plon, 1973.

Betker M. R., Fernando J. S., Whalen S. P. The History of the Microprocessor // Bell Labs Technical Journal, vol. 2, № 4, Autumn 1997. P. 29-56.

Bien R. Gauß and Beyond: The Making of Easter Algorithms // Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Vol. 58, № 5, 2004. P. 439-452.

It is amazing to see how many web pages are devoted to the art of finding the date of Easter Sunday. Just for illustration, the reader may search for terms such as Gregorian calendar, date of Easter, or Easter algorithm. Sophisticated essays as well as less enlightening contributions are presented, and many a doubt is expressed about the reliability of some results obtained with some Easter algorithms. In short, there is still a great interest in those problems. Gregorian Easter algorithms exist for two centuries (or more?), but most of their history is rather obscure. Some reasons may be that some important sources are written in Latin or in the German of Goethes time, or they are difficult to discover. Without being complete, the following paper is intended to shed light on how those techniques emerged and evolved. Like a microcosm, the history of Easter algorithms resembles the history of any science: it is a story of trials, errors, and successes, and, last but not least, a story of offended pride.


Biles G. E., Bolton A. A., DiRe B. M. Herman Hollerith: Inventor, Manager, Entrepreneur  A Centennial Remembrance // Journal of Management, vol. 15, № 4, 1989. P. 603-615.

Herman Hollerith developed electric tabulating machines to be used in compiling, aggregating, and totaling data items for the 1890 United States census. Hollerith's innovative genius and success with the electric tabulation of complex data laid the foundation for the computer industry and contributed to the development of management information systems.

Billings, Charlene W. Grace Hopper, Navy Admiral and Computer Pioneer. Enslow Publishers, 1989. 128 p.

Birkenstock J. W. Pioneering: On the Frontier of Electronic Data Processing, a Personal Memoir // AHC, Vol. 22, № 1, January-March 2000. P. 4-47.

Black E. IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance between Nazi Germany and Americas Most Powerful Corporation. Crown Pub, 2001. 528 p.

Bloch G. Enigma Before ULTRA: Polish Work and the French Contribution / Selections from Cryptologia: history, people, and technology. Deavours Cipher A., ed. Norwood, MA: Artech House, Inc, 1998. P. 373-386.

Bloch G. Enigma Before ULTRA: The Polish Success and Check / Selections from Cryptologia: history, people, and technology. Deavours Cipher A., ed. Norwood, MA: Artech House, Inc, 1998. P. 387-394.

Bloch G. Enigma Avant ULTRA (Enigma Before ULTRA) / Selections from Cryptologia: history, people, and technology. Deavours Cipher A., ed. Norwood, MA: Artech House, Inc, 1998. P. 395-402.

Blohm H., Beer S., Suzuki D. Pebbles to Computers: The Thread. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1987. 112 p.

It is a work of art that describes the human ability to create meaningful connections between individual points and meaningful patterns from among them. The route we have taken from using pebbles to calculate to the highly complex computers of today is described and illustrated in a fascinating way and in amazingly easy to understand stages, using stunning photographs.


Bockslaele P. P. Adrianus Romanus and the trigonometric tables of Georg Joachim Rheticus / Amphora: Festschrift for Hans Wussing on the occasion of his 65th birthday. S. S. Demidov et al. (eds), Basel-Boston-Berlin: 1992. 782 p. P. 55-66.

Booth, Andrew D. Reflections on the Difference Engine // AHC, Vol. 27, № 4, October-December 2005. P. 89-91.

Воспоминания английского компьютерного пионера о работе над его релейной вычислительной машиной ARC, первой машине с памятью на магнитном барабане (1947 г.).

Bowers B. Sir Charles Wheatstone FRS 1802-1875, 2nd edition. London: P. Peregrinus / Institution of Electrical Engineers (in association with The Science Museum, London), 2001. 256 p.

This fascinating biography celebrates the bicentenary of Wheatstone's birth, and draws on information about the family business as well as letters, including correspondence with Cooke and Faraday, which were not available for the first edition. Charles Wheatstone was one of the leading electrical engineers of the mid-nineteenth century, and began his career in the family musical instrument firm where studying the workings of musical instruments gave him a taste for physics. He was responsible for the introduction of the electrical telegraph where his scientific understanding enabled him to turn it into a practical technology. This book will be of particular interest to scientists and historians interested in the work of this pioneering engineer.

Bowker G., Giordano R. Interview with Tom Kilburn // AHC, Vol. 15, № 3, July-September 1993. P. 17-32.

Bowles M. D. U.S. Technological Enthusiasm and British Technological Skepticism in the Age of the Analog Brain // AHC, vol. 18, № 4, Winter 1996. P. 5-15.

Brennan, Jean Ford. The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History. Armonk, N.-Y.: IBM, 1971. 68 p.


Brief History of AFIPS and Its Constituent Societies // AHC, Vol. 8, № 3, July-September 1986. P. 219-224.

Brillhart J. Derrick Henry Lehmer // Acta Arithmetica, Vol. 62, № 3, 1992. P. 207-213.

Brinkman W. F., Haggan D. E., Troutman W. W. A History of the Invention of the Transistor and Where It Will Lead Us // IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 32, № 12, December 1997. P. 1858-1865.

Brooks, John. Telephone: The First Hundred Years. Harpercollins, 1976. 369 p.

Brown G. S. Harold Locke Hazen, 1901-1980 // AHC, Vol. 3, № 1, January-March 1981. P. 4-12.

Brown L. C. Flyable TRADIC – The First Airborne Transistorized Digital Computer // AHC, Vol. 21, № 4, October-December 1999. P. 55-61.

Brown P. H. John Napier of Merchiston / Napier Tercentenary Memorial Volume. London: Longmans, Green and Company, 1915. P. 33-51.

Bruckheimer M., Salomon Y. Some comments on R. J. Gillings analysis of the 2/n table in the Rhind Papyrus // Historia Mathematica, vol. 4, November 1977. P. 445-452.

Bryden D. J. George Brown, Author of the Rotula // Annals of Science, vol. 28, 1972. P. 1-29.

Статья о малоизвестной счетной машине шотландского священника Дж. Брауна, получившего на нее в 1698 г. патент сроком на 14 лет. Несколько сохранившихся экземпляров машины хранятся в Эдинбурге, в Национальном музее науки.

Bryden D. J. A didactic introduction to arithmetic, sir Charles Cotterells “Instrument for arithmeticke” of 1667 // History of education, vol. 2, 1973. P. 5-18 and 41-42.

Bryden D. J. Scotlands Earliest Surviving Calculating Device: Robert Davenports Circles of Proportion of c1650 // Scottish Historical Review, vol. 55, 1976. P. 54-60.


Bryden D. J. The Arithmetical Jewell or Jewell of Arithmetick // Quarto, vol. 23, 1985. P. 9-14.

Buck G., Hunka S. W. Stanley Jevons, Allan Marquand, and the Origins of Digital Computing // AHC, Vol. 21, № 4, 1999. P. 21-27.

Buckland M. K. Emanuel Goldberg, Electronic Document Retrieval, and Vannevar Bushs Memex // Journal of the American Society for Information Science, vol. 43, № 4, May 1992. P. 284-294.

Budiansky S. The Code War: The code-breaking machines of World War II took data-processing technology to its very limits in the era before computers // American Heritage of Invention and Technology. Summer 2000, vol. 16, 1. P. 36-43.

Budiansky S. Codebreaking with IBM Machines in World War II // Cryptologia, Vol. XXV, № 4, October 2001. P. 241-255.

Bulow R. Three Inventors  Scenes from Early German Computing History // AHC, Vol. 12, № 2, 1990. P. 109-126.

Биографии и характеристика работ трех немецких изобретателей, работавших в 1920-30 гг.: Э. Шиллинга (устройство для управления работой арифмометра, считывающее команды и данные с двух перфолент), Ф. Кампоса (механическая адресуемая память большого объема для бухгалтерских машин) и А. Вейгандта (специализированный релейный вычислитель).

Buonafalce A. Sir Samuel Morlands Machina Cyclologica Cryptographica // Cryptologia, vol. 28, № 3, July 2004. P. **-**.

Burke C. Information and Secrecy: Vannevar Bush, Ultra, and the Other Memex. Metuchen, N. J.: Scarecrow Press, 1994. 487 p.

Burke C. An Introduction to a Historic Computer Document: The 1946 Pendergass Report – Cryptanalysis and the Digital Computer / Selections from Cryptologia: history, people, and technology. Deavours Cipher A., ed. Norwood, MA: Artech House, Inc, 1998. P. 361-372.


Burks A. R. Who invented the Computer? The legal battle that changed computing history. Prometheus Books, 2002. 415 p.

Burks A. R., Burks A. W. The First Electronic Computer: The Atanasoff Story. Ann Arbor, Mich., 1988. 400 p.

Burks A. W., Burks A. R. First General-Purpose Electronic Computer. Atanasoff J. V., Brainerd J. G., Eckert J. P., Mauchly K. R., Randell B., Zuse K. Commentary (With Replies by the Authors) // AHC, Vol. 3, № 4, October-December 1981. P. 310-399.

Burnett C. Ocreatus / Vestigia mathematica: Studies in medieval and early modern mathematics in honour of H. L. L. Busard, ed. M. Folkerts and J. P. Hogendijk, Amsterdam and Atlanta, GA, 1993. P. 69-78.

Burnett C. Algorismi vel helcep decentior est diligentia: the Arithmetic of Adelard of Bath and his Circle / Mathematische Probleme im Mittelalter: der lateinische und arabische Sprachbereich, ed. M. Folkerts. Wiesbaden, 1996. P. 221-331.

Burnett C. Learning Indian Arithmetic in the Early Thirteenth Century // Boletín de la Asociación Matemática Venezolana, vol. IX, № 1, 2002. P. 15-26.

Burnett C. (ed.). Adelard of Bath: An English scientist and Arabist of the early twelfth century. London, 1987. (Warburg Institute Surveys and Texts 14). 208 p.

Burton, Christopher P. Replicating the Manchester Baby: Motives, Methods, and Messages from the Past // AHC, vol. 27, № 3, July-September 2005. P. 44-60.

Bush V. Pieces of the Action. N.-Y.: William Morrow and Co, 1970. 366 p.

This autobiography of Vannevar Bush presents “The personal record of 60 event-filled years by the distinguished scientist who took an active and decisive part in shaping them” (book cover). The author served as Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development and advisor to Presidents Roosevelt and Truman during World War II. He writes of organizations with which he was involved, stumbling blocks he overcame, his opinions of great men, and his experiences with inventing, teaching, and leadership. Bush also includes biographical notes on a multitude of his contemporaries that are useful in understanding his experiences and the events mentioned in the book.


Cailliau R., Gillies J. How the Web Was Born: Story of the World Wide Web. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. 372 p.

How the Web Was Born, by CERN's James Gillies and Robert Cailliau, follows the trail from the dawn of ARPANet through the mid-90s, just as the Web boom was beginning to take off in earnest. That may seem like an odd ending point, but the post-1995 story has already been told ad nauseam, and the writers know how to quit while they're ahead. The story is told from widely varying viewpoints and across shifting timelines as the various players are introduced and observed; this adds some complexity to the narrative, but yields a truer picture of the team efforts required to devise and launch the Web. Steve Jobs, Bill Gates, Marc Andreesen, Tim Berners-Lee (of course), and many more, figure prominently in the interwoven tales, and are briefly summarized in an abridged cast list at the end of the book, along with a paper and electronic bibliography. The book assumes some knowledge and interest on the part of the reader and saves its big-picture context for the end, but provides reader motivation both by its subject's inherent interest and the recurrent personalization of the story. Neither textbook nor CERN propaganda, How the Web Was Born offers an engagingly networked collection of characters that, like their invention, creates something larger than the sum of its parts.

Cajori F. History of the logarithmic slide rule. 1909. 88 p.

Cajori F. Algebra in Napiers Day and Alleged Prior Inventions of Logarithms / Napier Tercentenary Memorial Volume. London: Longmans, Green and Company, 1915. P. 93-109.

Cajori F. William Oughtred, a Great Seventeenth-Century teacher of Mathematics. Chicago, London: The Open Court, 1916. 100 p.

Cajori, Florian. On the history of Gunters scale and the slide rule during the seventeenth century // University of California publications in mathematics, № 1 (9), February 1920. P. 187-209.


Cajori F. A History of Mathematical Notations (Two Volumes Bound As One. Notations in Elementary Mathematics, Vol. 1 / Notations Mainly in Higher Mathematics, Vol. 2). Dover Publications, 1993. 820 p.

This classic study notes the first appearance of a mathematical symbol and its origin, the competition it encountered, its spread among writers in different countries, its rise to popularity, its eventual decline or ultimate survival. The author’s coverage of obsolete notations - and what we can learn from them - is as comprehensive as those which have survived and still enjoy favor. Originally published in 1929 in a two-volume edition, this monumental work is presented here in one volume.

Caminer D. T., Aris J., Hermon P., Land F. LEO: The Incredible Story of the Worlds First Business Computer. N.-Y., McGraw-Hill, 1997. 392 p.

Caminer D. T. Behind the Curtain at LEO: A Personal Reminiscence // AHC, Vol. 25, № 2, April-June 2003. P. 3-13.

Campbell-Kelly M. "Programming the EDSAC: Early Programming Activity at the University of Cambridge // AHC, Vol. 2, № 1, January-March, 1980. P. 7-36. (Перепечатано: AHC, Vol. 20, № 4, October-December, 1998. P. 46-67.)

Campbell-Kelly M. Programming the Mark I: Early Programming Activity at the University of Manchester // AHC, Vol. 2, № 2, April-June 1980. P. 130-168.

Campbell-Kelly M. Programming the Pilot ACE: Early Programming Activity at the National Physics Laboratory // AHC, Vol. 3, № 2, April-June 1981. P. 133-162.

Campbell-Kelly M. The Development of Computer Programming in Britain (1945 to 1955) // AHC, Vol. 4, № 2, April-June 1982. P. 121-139.

Campbell-Kelly M. Christopher Strachey, 1916-1975: A Biographical Note // AHC, Vol. 7, № 1, January-March 1985. P. 19-42.

Campbell-Kelly M. ICL: A Business and Technical History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990. 409 p.


Campbell-Kelly M. Large-scale data processing in the Prudential, 1850-1930 // Accounting, Business and Financial History, 2, 1992. P. 117-139.

Campbell-Kelly M. The Airy Tape: An Early Chapter in the History of Debugging // AHC, Vol. 14, № 4, October-December 1992. P. 16-26.

Campbell S. M. Beatrice Helen Worsley: Canadas Female Computer Pioneer // AHC, vol. 25, № 4, 2003. P. 51-62.

Campbell-Kelly M. From Airline reservation to Sonic the Hedgehog. A History of the Software Industry. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2003. 388 p.

Campbell-Kelly M., Aspray W. Computer: a History of the Information Machine. N.-Y.: Basic Books, 1996. 332 p.

Campbell-Kelly M., Williams M. R. (eds.). The Moore School Lectures: Theory and Techniques for the Design of Electronic Digital Computers. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press, 1985. 616 p.

Volume 9 in the Babbage Reprint Series makes the Moore School Lectures (1946) available for the first time. Delivered by such notable engineers and scientists as J.P. Eckert, J. Mauchly, H. Goldstine, A.W. Burks, and J. von Neumann at the University of Pennsylvania as a direct response to crucial new developments in the design and construction of the early stored program computer, the ENIAC, the lectures provide a comprehensive overview of the history of computing devices and digital and analog computing mechanisms; machine elements, including arithmetic circuits and the Selectron; numerical mathematical methods; and a detailed presentation of the ENIAC, the parallel type EDVAC, and the serial acoustic binary EDVAC.

Caplan E. The Controversial Replica of Leonardo da Vincis Adding Machine // AHC, Vol. 19, № 2, 1997. P. 62-63.

Carpenter B. E., Doran R. W. A. M. Turings ACE report of 1946 and other papers. Cambridge: The MIT Press/Los Angeles: Tomash Publishers, 1986.

Carroll C. M. The Great Chess Automaton. N.-Y.: Dover Books, 1975. 116 p.


Ceruzzi P. E. 1941 RPN Computer? // PPC Calculator Journal, vol. 7, № 3, April 1980. P. 25.

Ceruzzi P. E. The Early Computers of Konrad Zuse, 1935 to 1945 // AHC, Vol. 3, № 3, July-September 1981. P. 241-262.

Ceruzzi P. E. Reckoners. The prehistory of the digital computer: from relays to the stored program concept, 1935-1945. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1983. 186 p.

Ceruzzi P. Electronics Technology and Computer Science, 1940-1975: A Coevolution // AHC, Vol. 10, № 4, October-December 1988. P. 257-275.

Cerruzzi P. Beyond the Limits: Flight Enters the Computer Age. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1989. 200 p.

Computers and flying machines are two dominant technologies of our time. Beyond the Limits shows the ways in which they interact, clearly illustrating the complex issues and devices involved in their mutual evolution. It describes and illustrates how computer technology has affected the theory and practice of the engineering and operations of aircraft and spacecraft from 1945 to the present.

Paul Ceruzzi points out that the "revolution" in aerospace technology has been going on for at least forty years. For the first time, he tells how modern flight depends on computers, how this came about, and what its consequences are. He brings to light new facets of the individual stories of aerospace and computing, while also revealing more general themes about the dynamics and evolution of these modern technologies.

Spacecraft and fighters make use of leading-edge computer technologies in their design, testing manufacture, navigation and operation; moreover pilots and astronauts rely on computer simulations throughout their training. Ceruzzi describes these technologies and their history. In separate chapters he focuses on Northrop ("midwife of the computer industry"), missile tracking, Whirlwind, Apollo, Minuteman, and the software involved. An appendix discusses the role that on-board and ground computers played in the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger.


Ceruzzi P. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955 // AHC, Vol. 19, № 1, January-March 1997. P. 5-12.

Cerruzzi P. A History of Modern Computing. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1998. 416 p. (2nd ed. 2003. 459 p.)

This engaging history covers modern computing from the development of the first electronic digital computer through the dot-com crash. The author concentrates on five key moments of transition: the transformation of the computer in the late 1940s from a specialized scientific instrument to a commercial product; the emergence of small systems in the late 1960s; the beginning of personal computing in the 1970s; the spread of networking after 1985; and, in a chapter written for this edition, the period 1995-2001. The new material focuses on the Microsoft antitrust suit, the rise and fall of the dot-coms, and the advent of open source software, particularly Linux. Within the chronological narrative, the book traces several overlapping threads: the evolution of the computer's internal design; the effect of economic trends and the Cold War; the long-term role of IBM as a player and as a target for upstart entrepreneurs; the growth of software from a hidden element to a major character in the story of computing; and the recurring issue of the place of information and computing in a democratic society. The focus is on the United States (though Europe and Japan enter the story at crucial points), on computing per se rather than on applications such as artificial intelligence, and on systems that were sold commercially and installed in quantities.

Ceruzzi P. E. When Computers Were Human // AHC, Vol. 13, № 3, July-September 1991. P. 237-244.

Chabert J.-L., Barbin E. A History of Algorithms: From the Pebble to the Microchip. Springer-Verlag, 1999. 524 p.

A Source Book for the History of Mathematics, but one which offers a different perspective by focusing on algorithms. With the development of computing has come an awakening of interest in algorithms. Often neglected by historians and modern scientists, more concerned with the nature of concepts, algorithmic procedures turn out to have been instrumental in the development of fundamental ideas: practice led to theory just as much as the other way round. The purpose of this book is to offer a historical background to contemporary algorithmic practice.


Chandler W. W. The Installation and Maintenance of Colossus // AHC, Vol. 5, № 3, July-September 1983. P. 260-262.

Chase G. C. History of Mechanical Computing Machinery // AHC, Vol. 2, № 3, July-September 1980. P. 198-226.

Christopher Evans Conversation: J. M. M. Pinkerton // AHC, Vol. 5, № 1, January-March 1983. P. 64-72.

Clarke W. F. Bletchly-Park 1941-1945 / Selections from Cryptologia: history, people, and technology. Deavours Cipher A., ed. Norwood, MA: Artech House, Inc, 1998. P. 227-234.

Clymer A. B. The mechanical analog computers of Hannibal Ford and William Newell // AHC, vol. 15, № 2, 1993. P. 19-34.

Cohen J. A view of the origins and development of Prolog // Communications of the ACM, vol. 31, № 1 (Jan. 1988). P. 26-36.

Cohen I. B. The Use of “Bug” in Computing // AHC, Vol. 16, № 2, Summer 1994. P. 54-55.

Cohen I. B. Howard Aiken on the Number of Computers Needed for the Nation // AHC, Vol. 20, № 3, July/September 1998. P. 27-32.

Cohen I. B. Howard Aiken: Portrait of a Computer Pioneer. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1999. 412 p.

Cohen I. B., Welch G. W. (eds.). Makin Numbers: Howard Aiken and the Computer. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1999. 320 p.

Сборник статей. См. 1994, № 2. Анекдоты

Cohen G. L., Shannon A. G. John Wards Method for the Calculation of Pi // Historia Mathematica, vol. 8, May 1981. P. 133-144.



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