of the thesis submitted for the scientific degree of Doctor
of historical sciences on specialty 07.00.07 – Ethnography, Ethnology and Anthropology
KAlshabayeva Bibizia Kenzhebekovna
The Kazakhs of Central Asia
The present dissertation is devoted to one of the acute and most complicated problems of ethnic history and ethnic peculiarities of Central Asian Kazakhs, living outside their own territory due to several historic reasons. Here on the basis of different written records, represented by various languages, and also on the materials of folk literature are researched the reasons, context and character of the Kazakh Diaspora and irredentism where survived the traditional culture.
The actuality of dissertation. The integration of Kazakhstan territory into the international community and formation of it’s national idea makes ethnic history issues, keeping thee traditional culture of our kinsmen abroad one of the major historical events of this period. At present time the practical needs and scientific interests of our societies to the role had been playing by ethnic and cultural processes in the region of Central Asia has driven the interest of researchers to this historical phenomenon. Unfortunately, the problem of Kazakhstan’s connection and ties with Kazakh people abroad still hasn’t become the subject of all-comprehensive, deep research. Historical research of this phenomenon is also important for the reconstruction of cultural heritage, moral and spiritual development of society.
The goal of the research is defining of the context, character and outcomes of Kazakhs Diaspora traditional culture character.
The tasks of the research are:
-studies of the history of administrative-territorial management of Central Asian republics;
- investigation of processes of migration of Kazakh people on the basis of archival and special documents;
- defining of tribal composition, argumentation of chronology, setting dynamics, and peculiarities of its settlement processes;
- the analysis of demographic dynamics on the basis of statistic data;
- investigation of the questions of keeping traditional material life;
- studies of material life and local conditions under which they appeared;
- making clear the interconnection between family-marital traditions among local population and Kazakh people;
- investigation of the reasons of coming back Kazakhs to the motherland and adaptation at new circumstances;
- was shown the prerequisites and reasons of their settlement to Central Asia;
- on the basis of archival and field studies was proved that some border regions of Uzbekistan were Kazakh territories and also systematic analysis of documents laid in the foundation of border disputes solving at present period;
- was defined the tribal composition of Kazakh Diaspora and its connection with ancient tribes having been inhabited these territories certain places;
- on the basis of statistic data and census is shown the dynamics of growth and fall of Kazakh Diaspora population;
- in the course of analysis are researched the peculiarities of keeping and changing the traditional economic system of Kazakhs in accordance with their settlement;
- is given the comparative analysis of peculiarities of material life 9dwellings, clothes, traditional food, etc.) and changes caused by innovative environment conditions;
- on the basis of field materials were defined the character, direction and keeping of family-marital traditions of Kazakhs in Central Asia;
- were shown the main tendencies and regional characteristics of ethno - cultural processes in Kazakh Diaspora and their influence to their ethnic development;
- on the basis of statistical data were defined the main factors affecting the process of re-emigration Kazakhs back.
Main results of the work:
- before the October riot 1917 there was no an exact division between republics of Central Asia made on the basis of their common ethnic roots and ethnic integrated space. National-territorial division made in 1924-1930-s led to the foundation of new republics in Central Asia on the ethnic principles which haven’t changed till nowadays;
- on the basis of historical researches is shown that Kazakh tribes of Kangly, Jalair belongs to the indigenous population of Central Asia. Part of Kazakhs living in bordering regions of Uzbekistan (Tashkent, Syr-Daria and Jizak regions) and Turkmenistan (Balkan) is forming irredentist population, the other part of Kazakhs in some regions of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan consists of Diaspora due to certain historic reasons;
- on the basis of first analyzed data is shown that during the division Central Asia republics were accepted the interests of Kazakh population of Niyazbek, Bolat, Zengiat, Kaunchi village of Tashkent region, Sysamyr jaylau, and Argyn village if Kyrgyzstan Due to these reasons the Kazakh were out of their motherland. The other part of Kazakh Diaspora was formed because of volatile collectivization, famine and labor migration. Also the number of Kazakh Diaspora was increasing due to renting of Kazakh lands by Uzbekistan in 1942-49, 1956-63.
- at the result of scientific research, analysis of archival documents and field studies was established the tribal composition and settlement of Kazakhs in Central Asia. In northern-eastern parts of Uzbekisran are living the Kazakhs belonging to Kangly,Shanyshkyly, Jalair, Oshakty, Darkhan, of Senior Juz and small part of Middle Juz. In the region of Bukhara, Navoi are living the representative of Middle and Junior Juzes, in Turkmenistan people from Bayuly tribe.
- were shown mistakes and lack of verification in statistical data and census of population taking place in 1930-s by Soviet power. From II half of XIX to I half of XX centuries the share of Kazakhs in population of Tashkent region was higher (for example, in 1868 Kazakh were more than 144,000 while the Uzbeks estimated as 34, 000. But since 1920-s the share of Kazakh began to decrease due to Uzbek migration here from central regions of republic.
- the main types of ethno-economic of Kazakhs were traditionally land cultivation and cattle breeding. Land cultivation system of Kazakhs in comparison of culture of locals consisted of crops mainly. The Kazakhs of Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan were mainly involved in cattle breeding.
- beginning with 50-s of XX century is seen the mutual influence of material culture of Kazakhs and Uzbeks, displayed in traditions of cooking, dwellings, national clothes, etc.
-On the basis of analysis of field materials is revealed the mutual connection and similarities in funeral traditions of Kazakhs, living in Uzbekistan and Karakolpakstan. In Kyrgyzstan mixed marriages became widely spread (Kyrgyz-Kazakh). The Kazakhs of Turkmenistan in spite of regional peculiarities continue to keep the traditions.
- for the first time independence period of RK the major part of our kinsmen from Uzbekistan and Tajikistan moved to southern regions of Kazakhstan, and Kazakhs of Turkmenistan and Karakolpakstan settled on the territory of Mangistau and Aktobe regions, For their successful adaptation we need to further measures on solving the social problems of newcomers from the side of Agency on migration of RK.